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The use of mechanical acoustic vibrations to improve abdominal contour.

Dessy LA, Monarca C, Grasso F, Saggini A, Buccheri EM, Saggini R, Scuderi N.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University La Sapienza of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00161 Roma, Italy. lucadessy@hotmail.com

Adaptive effects caused by mechanical acoustic vibrations on the neuromuscular system are widely described. These vibrations applied to the muscle belly cause the "vibration tonic reflex" characterized by an improvement in power contraction of the stimulated muscle. Mechanical acoustic vibrations of moderate strength placed on limited body areas produce a positive muscle activity without damage. A prospective study from January to September 2006 investigated 60 sedentary patients presenting with muscular hypotrophy associated or not associated with lipodystrophy of the abdominal region who desired a substantial contour improvement of such area without invasive procedures. Of these patients, 40 were subjected to a treatment protocol with mechanical acoustic vibrations applied to the abdomen, associated or not associated with physical aerobic exercise of moderate intensity. The remaining 20 patients engaged only in the physical training. The study aimed to evaluate whether the application of mechanical acoustic vibrations could improve body contour.

Dessy L.A., Monarca C., Grasso F., Saggini A., Buccheri E.M., Saggini R. & Scuderi N. (2008). The use of mechanical acoustic vibrations to improve abdominal contour. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. 32(2). 339-345.

Acute physiological effects of exhaustive whole-body vibration exercise in man.

Rittweger J, Beller G, Felsenberg D.

Institute of Physiology, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

Vibration exercise (VE) is a new neuromuscular training method which is applied in athletes as well as in prevention and therapy of osteoporosis. The present study explored the physiological mechanisms of fatigue by VE in 37 young healthy subjects. Exercise and cardiovascular data were compared to progressive bicycle ergometry until exhaustion. VE was performed in two sessions, with a 26 Hz vibration on a ground plate, in combination with squatting plus additional load (40% of body weight). After VE, subjectively perceived exertion on Borg's scale was 18, and thus as high as after bicycle ergometry. Heart rate after VE increased to 128 min-1, blood pressure to 132/52 mmHg, and lactate to 3.5 mM. Oxygen uptake in VE was 48.8% of VO2max in bicycle ergometry. After VE, voluntary force in knee extension was reduced by 9.2%, jump height by 9.1%, and the decrease of EMG median frequency during maximal voluntary contraction was attenuated. The reproducibility in the two VE sessions was quite good: for heart rate, oxygen uptake and reduction in jump height, correlation coefficients of values from session 1 and from session 2 were between 0.67 and 0.7. Thus, VE can be well controlled in terms of these parameters. Surprisingly, an itching erythema was found in about half of the individuals, and an increase in cutaneous blood flow. It follows that exhaustive whole-body VE elicits a mild cardiovascular exertion, and that neural as well as muscular mechanisms of fatigue may play a role.

Rittweger J., Beller G. & Felsenberg D. (2000). Acute physiological effects of exhaustive whole-body vibration exercise in man. Clinical Physiology. 20(2). 134-142.

Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement.

Rittweger J, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D.

Institut für Physiologie, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany. ritmus@zedat.fu-berlin.de

In this study we investigated metabolic power during whole-body vibration exercise (VbX) compared to mild resistance exercise. Specific oxygen consumption (VO2) and subjectively perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion, RPE; Borg scale) were assessed in 12 young healthy subjects (8 female and 4 male). The outcome parameters were assessed during the last minute of a 3-min exercise bout, which consisted of either (1) simple standing, (2) squatting in cycles of 6 s to 90 degrees knee flexion, and (3) squatting as before with an additional load of 40% of the subject's body weight (35% in females). Exercise types 1-3 were performed with (VbX+) and without (VbX-) platform vibration at a frequency of 26 Hz and an amplitude of 6 mm. Compared to the VbX- condition, the specific VO2 was increased with vibration by 4.5 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1). Likewise, squatting and the additional load were factors that further increased VO2. Corresponding changes were observed in RPE. There was a correlation between VbX- and VbX+ values for exercise types 1-3 (r = 0.90). The correlation coefficient between squat/no-squat values (r = 0.70 without and r = 0.71 with the additional load) was significantly lower than that for VbX-/VbX+. Variation in specific VO2 was significantly higher in the squatting paradigm than with vibration. It is concluded that the increased metabolic power observed in association with VbX is due to muscular activity. It is likely that this muscular activity is easier to control between individuals than is simple squatting.

Rittweger J., Schiessl H. & Felsenberg D. (2001). Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 86(2). 169-173.

Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration training on body composition and muscle strength in untrained females.

Roelants M, Delecluse C, Goris M, Verschueren S.

Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Department of Kinesiology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tervuursevest 101, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the effect of 24 weeks "whole body vibration" training and fitness training on body composition and on muscle strength. Forty-eight untrained females (21.3 +/- 2.0 yr) participated in the study. The whole body vibration group (N = 18) performed unloaded static and dynamic exercises on a vibration platform (35 - 40 Hz, 2.5 - 5.0 mm; Power Plate). The fitness group (N = 18) followed a standard cardiovascular (15 - 40 min) and resistance training program including dynamic leg press and leg extension exercises (20 - 8 RM). Both groups trained 3 times weekly. The control group (N = 12) did not participate in any training. Body composition was determined by means of underwater weighing. Additionally 12 skinfolds were assessed. Isometric (0 degrees /s) and isokinetic (50 degrees /s, 100 degrees /s, 150 degrees /s) knee-extensor strength was measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Technogym). Over 24 weeks there were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in weight, in percentage body fat, nor in skinfold thickness in any of the groups. Fat free mass increased significantly in the whole body vibration group (+ 2.2 %) only. A significant strength gain was recorded in the whole body vibration group (24.4 +/- 5.1 %; 5.9 +/- 2.1 %; 8.3 +/- 4.4 %; 7.6 +/- 1.5 %) and in the fitness group (16.5 +/- 1.7 %; 12.0 +/- 2.7 %; 10.4 +/- 2.3 %; 10.2 +/- 1.9 %), at 0 degrees /s, 50 degrees /s, 100 degrees /s and 150 degrees /s respectively. In conclusion, 24 weeks whole body vibration training did not reduce weight, total body fat or subcutaneous fat in previously untrained females. However, whole body vibration training induces a gain in knee-extensor strength combined with a small increase in fat free mass. The gain in strength is comparable to the strength increase following a standard fitness training program consisting of cardiovascular and resistance training.

Roelants M., Delecluse C., Goris M. & Verschueren S. (2004). Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration training on body composition and muscle strength in untrained females. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 25(1).

Oxygen uptake in whole-body vibration exercise: influence of vibration frequency, amplitude, and external load.

Rittweger J, Ehrig J, Just K, Mutschelknauss M, Kirsch KA, Felsenberg D.

Institut für Physiologie, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany. ritmus@zedat.fu-berlin.de

Vibration exercise (VbX) is a new type of physical training to increase muscle power. The present study was designed to assess the influence of whole-body VbX on metabolic power. Specific oxygen uptake (sVO(2)) was assessed, testing the hypotheses that sVO(2) increases with the frequency of vibration (tested in 10 males) and with the amplitude (tested in 8 males), and that the VbX-related increase in sVO(2) is enhanced by increased muscle force (tested in 8 males). With a vibration amplitude of 5 mm, a linear increase in sVO(2) was found from frequencies 18 to 34 Hz (p < 0.01). Each vibration cycle evoked an oxygen consumption of approximately 2.5 micro l x kg(-1). At a vibration frequency of 26 Hz, sVO(2) increased more than proportionally with amplitudes from 2.5 to 7.5 mm. With an additional load of 40 % of the lean body mass attached to the waist, sVO(2) likewise increased significantly. A further increase was observed when the load was applied to the shoulders. The present findings indicate that metabolic power in whole-body VbX can be parametrically controlled by frequency and amplitude, and by application of additional loads. These results further substantiate the view that VbX enhances muscular metabolic power, and thus muscle activity.

Rittweger J., Ehrig J., Just K., Mutschelknauss M., Kirsch K.A. & Felsenberg D. (2002). Oxygen uptake in whole-body vibration exercise: influence of vibration frequency, amplitude, and external load. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 23(6). 428-432.

Impact of whole-body vibration training versus fitness training on muscle strength and muscle mass in older men: a 1-year randomized controlled trial.

Bogaerts A, Delecluse C, Claessens AL, Coudyzer W, Boonen S, Verschueren SM.

Division of Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tervuursevest 101, Leuven, Belgium.

BACKGROUND: This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 1-year whole-body vibration (WBV) training on isometric and explosive muscle strength and muscle mass in community-dwelling men older than 60 years. METHODS: Muscle characteristics of the WBV group (n = 31, 67.3 +/- 0.7 years) were compared with those of a fitness (FIT) group (n = 30, 67.4 +/- 0.8 years) and a control (CON) group (n = 36, 68.6 +/- 0.9 years). Isometric strength of the knee extensors was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer, explosive muscle strength was assessed using a counter movement jump, and muscle mass of the upper leg was determined by computed tomography. RESULTS: Isometric muscle strength, explosive muscle strength, and muscle mass increased significantly in the WBV group (9.8%, 10.9%, and 3.4%, respectively) and in the FIT group (13.1%, 9.8%, and 3.8%, respectively) with the training effects not significantly different between the groups. No significant changes in any parameter were found in the CON group. CONCLUSION: WBV training is as efficient as a fitness program to increase isometric and explosive knee extension strength and muscle mass of the upper leg in community-dwelling older men. These findings suggest that WBV training has potential to prevent or reverse the age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass, referred to as sarcopenia.

Bogaerts A., Delecluse C., Claessens A.L., Coudyzer W., Boonen S. & Verschueren S.M. (2007). Impact of whole-body vibration training versus fitness training on muscle strength and muscle mass in older men: a 1-year randomized controlled trial. The Journals of Gerontology. 62(6). 630-650.

Influence of vibration training on energy expenditure in active men.

Da Silva ME, Fernandez JM, Castillo E, Nunez VM, Vaamonde DM, Poblador MS, Lancho JL.

Morphological Sciences Department, School of Medicine, University of Cordóba, Cordóba, Spain. pit_researcher@yahoo.es

The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of whole-body vibration on energy expenditure, as well as on exercise intensity, during and immediately after a typical set of exercises for muscle hypertrophy in physically active subjects. Seventeen male university students (mean age 18.3 +/- 0.24 years) volunteered to perform 2 different training exercises: half squat (HS), and half squat with vibration (HSV). Both exercises were performed by all subjects on the vibration platform (with vibration only for HSV), the sequence order being assigned randomly. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio, perceived exertion (PE), and heart rate were recorded for baseline, exercise, and short-recovery conditions. Training consisted of 5 sets of 10 repetitions of HS and HSV, with a 2-minute recovery interval between sets. Analysis of variance with repeated measurements and Bonferroni correction, as well as effect size were used for statistical calculations. Results indicated that EE and PE were significantly higher in the HSV group, during both exercise and recovery. Heart rate did not differ significantly between groups. Thus, it would appear that HS strength training could be rendered more energy-efficient through the addition of vibration. Moreover, it would be feasible to introduce vibration exercises into regular training programs, particularly those whose key objective is muscle hypertrophy along with fat reduction.

Da Silva M.E., Fernandez J.M., Castillo E., Nunez V.M., Vaamonde D.M., Poblador M.S. & Lancho J.L. (2007). Influence of vibration training on energy expenditure in active men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 21(2). 470-475.

The effects of movement velocity during squatting on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in whole-body vibration.

Garatachea N, Jimenez A, Bresciani G, Marino NA, Gonzalez-Gallego J, de Paz JA.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of León, León, Spain. nuria.garatachea@unileon.es

The purpose of this study was to examine whether and how cycle time duration affects energy expenditure and substrate utilization during whole-body vibration (WBV). Nine men performed 3 squatting exercises in execution frequency cycles of 6, 4, and 2 seconds to 90 degrees knee flexion with vibration (Vb+) (frequency was set at 30 Hz and the amplitude of vibration was 4 mm) and without vibration (Vb-) during 3 minutes, each with an additional load of 30% of the subject's body weight. A 2-way analysis of variance for VO2 revealed a significant vibration condition main effect (p < 0.001) and a cycle time duration effect (p < 0.001). When differences were analyzed by Fisher's LSD test, cycle time duration of 2 seconds was significantly different from 4 and 6 seconds, both in Vb+ and Vb-. Total energy expenditure (EE(tot)), carbohydrate oxidation rate (EE(cho)), and fat oxidation rate (EE(fat)) demonstrated a significant vibration condition main effect (EE(tot): p < 0.01; EE(cho): p < 0.001; EE(fat): p < 0.001) and cycle time duration main effect (EE(tot) and EE(cho): p < 0.001; EE(fat): p < 0.01). EE(tot), EE(cho), and EE(fat) post hoc comparisons indicated that values for the 2-second test significantly differed from 4 and 6 seconds when compared in the same vibration condition. VO2 and EE values were greater in Vb+ than in Vb- conditions with the same cycle time duration. Our study confirms that squatting at a greater frequency helps to maximize energy expenditure during exercise with or without vibration. Therefore, cycle time duration must be controlled when vibration exercise is prescribed.

Garatachea N., Jimenez A., Bresciani G., Marino N.A., Golzales-Gallego J. & de Paz J.A. (2007). The effects of movement velocity during squating on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in whole-body vibration. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 21(2). 594-598.

Adipogenesis is inhibited by brief, daily exposure to high-frequency, extremely low-magnitude mechanical signals.

Rubin CT, Capilla E, Luu YK, Busa B, Crawford H, Nolan DJ, Mittal V, Rosen CJ, Pessin JE, Judex S.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. clinton.rubin@sunysb.edu

Obesity, a global pandemic that debilitates millions of people and burdens society with tens of billions of dollars in health care costs, is deterred by exercise. Although it is presumed that the more strenuous a physical challenge the more effective it will be in the suppression of adiposity, here it is shown that 15 weeks of brief, daily exposure to high-frequency mechanical signals, induced at a magnitude well below that which would arise during walking, inhibited adipogenesis by 27% in C57BL/6J mice. The mechanical signal also reduced key risk factors in the onset of type II diabetes, nonesterified free fatty acid and triglyceride content in the liver, by 43% and 39%, respectively. Over 9 weeks, these same signals suppressed fat production by 22% in the C3H.B6-6T congenic mouse strain that exhibits accelerated age-related changes in body composition. In an effort to understand the means by which fat production was inhibited, irradiated mice receiving bone marrow transplants from heterozygous GFP+ mice revealed that 6 weeks of these low-magnitude mechanical signals reduced the commitment of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes by 19%, indicating that formation of adipose tissue in these models was deterred by a marked reduction in stem cell adipogenesis. Translated to the human, this may represent the basis for the nonpharmacologic prevention of obesity and its sequelae, achieved through developmental, rather than metabolic, pathways.

Rubin C.T., Capilla E., Luu Y.K., Busa B., Crawford H., Nolan D.J., Mittal V., Rosen C.J., Pessin J.E. & Judex S. (2007). Adipogenesis is inhibited by brief, daily exposure to high-frequency, extremely low-magnitude mechanical signals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104(45). 17879-17884.

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