Blood Flow and Circulation

Arterial stiffness acutely decreases after whole-body vibration in humans.

Otsuki T, Takanami Y, Aoi W, Kawai Y, Ichikawa H, Yoshikawa T.

Faculty of Health and Welfare Human Services, St.  Catherine University, Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan.

Background: Increased arterial stiffness is a well-established cardiovascular risk factor. Mechanical stimuli to artery, such as compression, elicit vasodilation and acutely decrease arterial stiffness. As whole-body vibration (WBV)-induced oscillation is propagated at least to lumbar spine, WBV mechanically stimulates abdominal and leg arteries and may decrease arterial stiffness. WBV is feasible in vulnerable and immobilized humans. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the possibility of WBV as a valuable adjunct to exercise training. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of WBV on arterial stiffness. Methods: Ten healthy men performed WBV and control (CON) trials on separate days. The WBV session consisted of 10 sets of vibration (frequency, 26 Hz) for 60 s with an inter-set rest period of 60 s. Subjects maintained a static squat position with knees bent on a platform. In the CON trial, WBV stimulation was not imposed. Blood pressure, heart rate and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, were measured before and 20, 40 and 60 min after both trials. Results and conclusion: Heart rate and blood pressure did not change from baseline after both trials. Although baPWV did not change in the CON trial (baseline vs. after 20, 40 and 60 min; 1144 +/- 35 vs. 1164 +/- 41, 1142 +/- 39, and 1148 +/- 34 cm s(-1)), baPWV decreased 20 and 40 min after the WBV trial and recovered to baseline 60 min after the trial (1137 +/- 28 vs. 1107 +/- 30, 1108 +/- 28, and 1128 +/- 25 cm s(-1)). These results suggest that WBV acutely decreases arterial stiffness.

Otsuki T., Takanami Y., Aoi W., Kawai Y., Ichikawa H. & Yoshikawa T. (2008). Arterial stiffness  acutely decreases after whole-body vibration in humans. Acta Physiologica. [Epub ahead of print].

Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume.

Kerschan-Schindl K, Grampp S, Henk C, Resch H, Preisinger E, Fialka-Moser V, Imhof H.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Occupationally used high-frequency vibration is supposed to have negative effects on blood flow and muscle strength. Conversely, low-frequency vibration used as a training tool appears to increase muscle strength, but nothing is known about its effects on peripheral circulation. The aim of this investigation was to quantify alterations in muscle blood volume after whole muscle vibration--after exercising on the training device Galileo 2000 (Novotec GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany). Twenty healthy adults performed a 9-min standing test. They stood with both feet on a platform, producing oscillating mechanical vibrations of 26 Hz. Alterations in muscle blood volume of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were assessed with power Doppler sonography and arterial blood flow of the popliteal artery with a Doppler ultrasound machine. Measurements were performed before and immediately after exercising. Power Doppler indices indicative of muscular blood circulation in the calf and thigh significantly increased after exercise. The mean blood flow velocity in the popliteal artery increased from 6.5 to 13.0 cm x s(-1) and its resistive index was significantly reduced. The results indicate that low-frequency vibration does not have the negative effects on peripheral circulation known from occupational high-frequency vibration.

Kerschan-Schindl K., Grampp S., Henk C., Resch H., Preisinger E., Fialka-Moser V. & Imhof H. (2001). Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume. Clinical Physiology. 21(3). 377-382.

Vastus lateralis oxygenation and blood volume measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during whole body vibration.

Yamada E, Kusaka T, Miyamoto K, Tanaka S, Morita S, Tanaka S, Tsuji S, Mori S, Norimatsu H, Itoh S.

Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Hospital, Kagawa, Japan. [email protected]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on oxygenation of vastus lateralis muscle during squatting exercise. Eighteen male subjects [mean age, 27.3 +/- 6.0 (SD) years; mean height, 171.8 +/- 4.9 cm; mean weight, 64.4 +/- 6.1 kg] performed squatting exercise on a vibration platform for 3 min with and without vibration, and changes in oxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle were determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. The muscle oxygenation levels and total haemoglobin and myoglobin levels (total Hb/Mb) decreased during squatting exercise with and without vibration. After exercise, the muscle oxygenation level and total Hb/Mb rapidly increased from the minimum value during exercise and remained constant for latter 10 min. The muscle oxygenation levels with vibration from 90 to 180 s after the start of squatting exercise were significantly lower than those without vibration. Total Hb/Mb with vibration from 90 s after the squatting exercise to 540 s were significantly higher than those without vibration. This study demonstrated that WBV exercise affects the oxygenation level of vastus lateralis muscle and reduces muscle oxygenation level compared to that with no WBV. Therefore, WBV exercise may be an efficient training stimulus for muscle deoxygenation.

Yamada E., Kusaka T., Miyamoto K., Tanaka S., Morita S., Tanaka S., Tsuji S., Mori S., Norimatsu H. & Itoh S. (2005). Vastus lateralis oxygenation and blood volume measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during whole body vibration. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. 25(4). 203-208.

Efficiency of vibration exercise for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients.

Baum K, Votteler T, Schiab J.

Institut für Physiologie und Anatomie, Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln, Germany and Trainingsinstitut Prof. Dr. Baum GmbH, Köln, Germany. [email protected]

Although it is well documented that persons suffering from diabetes type 2 profit from muscular activities, just a negligible amount of patients take advantage of physical exercises. During the last decade, vibration exercise (VE) could be established as an effective measure to prevent muscular atrophy and osteoporosis with low expenditure of overall exercise-time. Unfortunately, little is known about the metabolic effects of VE. In the present study we compared VE with the influence of strength training and a control group (flexibility training) on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Forty adult non-insulin dependent patients participated in the intervention. Fasting glucose concentration, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), the isometric maximal torque of quadriceps muscles, and endurance capacity were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of training with three training sessions per week. The main findings are: Fasting glucose concentrations remind unchanged after training. The area under curve and maximal glucose concentration of OGTT were reduced in the vibration and strength training group. HbA1c values tended to decrease below baseline date in the vibration training group while it increased in the two other intervention groups. Theses findings suggest that vibration exercise may be an effective and low time consuming tool to enhance glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients.

Baum K., Votteler T. & Schiab J. (2007). Efficiency of vibration exercise for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. International Journal of Medical Sciences. 31;4(3). 159-163.

Vibration training: benefits and risks.

Mester J, Kleinoder H, Yue Z.

Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.

The main results of our recent several studies, i.e. the measurements of vibration training results for single case and group studies as well as the cardiovascular parameter measurements during vibrations and the corresponding hydrodynamic analysis, are summarized. Our studies and previous work all confirm that vibration training is an effective training method in order to improve maximal strength and flexibility as well as various other factors if the training is properly designed. Some recommendations regarding the proper ranges of frequencies, amplitudes and exposure duration of vibration training are made based on the existing vibration training practice and mechanism analysis, although much work remains to be carried out in order to set up clear rules for various groups of people so that maximal training results could be expected and in the meantime potential dangerous effects could be avoided. Cardiovascular parameter measurements confirm that total peripheral resistance (TPR) to the blood flow is increased during body vibration. Hydrodynamic analysis offers the mechanism for the increase of TPR through the deformation of vessels. As a reaction of compensation, more capillaries are probably opened in order to keep a necessary level of cardiac output needed for the body, resulting in more efficient gas and material metabolism between the blood and muscle fibres. This might be one of the reasons for the various potential beneficial effects of vibration training.

Mester J., Kleinoder H. & Yue Z. (2006). Vibration training: benefits and risks. Journal of Biomechanics. 39(6). 1056-1065.

The effect of 30 Hz vs. 50 Hz passive vibration and duration of vibration on skin blood flow in the arm.

Maloney-Hinds C, Petrofsky JS, Zimmerman G.

Department of Physical Therapy, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

BACKGROUND: Recently, researchers have demonstrated that Whole Body Vibration (WBV) results in significant increases in skin blood flow (SBF). No study has determined if a specific frequency or a specific duration is better at optimizing SBF. MATERIAL/METHODS: Two studies were conducted to determine, 1) if there is a difference in SBF due to passive vibration of the forearm at 30 Hz vs. 50 Hz, 2) if one frequency is superior, and 3) if there is an optimal duration. In the first study, 18 subjects (mean age 20.3+/-2.9 years) were randomly placed into a 30 Hz or 50 Hz vibration group, and in the second, seven subjects (mean age 23.3+/-3.8 years) participated in both 30 and 50 Hz vibration. Each subject's arm was passively vibrated for 10 minutes. SBF was examined during vibration and for 15 minutes of recovery. RESULTS: Both frequencies produced significant increases in SBF (p<0.05) within the first four minutes of vibration. Peak SBFs were obtained by the fifth minute. SBF remained high for minutes 4 through 10 of vibration in the second study. In the first study, SBF remained high for minutes 4 through 9. During recovery, 30 Hz vibration produced SBFs below baseline values while 50 Hz SBFs remained above baseline. Statistically one frequency was not superior to the other. CONCLUSIONS: Five minutes of 30 Hz or 50 Hz vibration produced significant increases in SBF. Clinically, 50 Hz has additional benefits because SBF increased more rapidly and did not result in vasoconstriction during the recovery period. Future studies should be done to determine if these increases in SBF could be of benefit to populations with low circulation such as those with diabetes.

Maloney-Hinds C., Petrofsky J.S. & Zimmerman G. (2008). The effect of 30 hz vs. 50 hz passive vibration and duration of vibration on skin blood flow in the arm. Medical Science Monitor. 14(3). 112-116.

The effect of whole body vibration on lower extremity skin blood flow in normal subjects.

Lohman EB, Petrofsky JS, Maloney-Hinds C, Betts-Schwab H, Thorpe D.

Department of Physical Therapy, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: Circulation plays a vital role in tissue healing. Increases in muscle flexibility and strength, secretion of hormones important in the regeneration and repair process, blood flow, and strength of bone tissues has been attributed to whole body vibration (WBV) combined with exercise. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of short-duration, high-intensity, isometric weight bearing exercise (vibration exercise [VE]) and vibration only on skin blood flow (SBF). MATERIAL/METHODS: Forty-five subjects 18-43 years of age were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 - VE, Group 2 - exercise only, and Group 3 - vibration only. SBF was measured using a laser Doppler imager at three time intervals: 1) initial base line, 2) immediately following intervention, and 3) 10-minutes following intervention. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the three groups' SBF prior to intervention. Immediately following the intervention a difference among groups was found. Post hoc testing revealed that Group 3 subjects' mean SBF was significantly increased at both post-intervention time intervals. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that short duration vibration alone significantly increases SBF; doubling mean SBF for a minimum of 10 minutes following intervention. The emerging therapeutic modality of WBV as a passive intervention appears to increase SBF in individuals with healthy microcirculation.

Lohman E.B., Petrofsky J.S., Maloney-Hinds C., Betts-Schwab H. & Thorpe D. (2007). The effect of whole body vibration on lower extremity skin blood flow in normal subjects. Medical Science Monitor. 13(2). 71-76.

Gastrocnemius medialis and vastus lateralis oxygenation during whole-body vibration exercise.

Cardinale M, Ferrari M, Quaresima V.

Olympic Medical Institute, Northwick Park Hospital, Harrow, United Kingdom. [email protected]

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different whole-body vibration (WBV) frequencies on oxygenation of vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles during static squatting in sedentary and physically active healthy males. METHODS: Twenty volunteers (age: 24.6 +/- 2.9 yr; body mass: 80.6 +/- 11.8 kg; height: 178.1 +/- 7.6 cm) participated in this study. Ten subjects were sedentary individuals and 10 were athletes practicing different sports. All subjects completed four trials (control, and 30-, 40-, and 50-Hz WBV) in a randomized controlled crossover design. The trials consisted of static squatting on a vibrating platform for a total duration of 110 s. Muscle-oxygenation status was recorded with near-infrared spectroscopy. RESULTS: The data analysis revealed no significant treatment-by-time interactions in tissue-oxygenation index (TOI) or Delta total hemoglobin volume (tHb) in VL and GM muscles. A significant main effect of time in TOI of both VL and GM muscles was identified (P<0.001). VL TOI significantly decreased by 2.8% at 90 s in the control condition and by 3.3% at 110 s in the 30-Hz condition; VL TOI significantly increased by 2.1 and 3.0% at 30 s in the 40- and 50-Hz conditions, respectively. GM TOI significantly decreased by 3.2% at 60 s, by 4.1% at 90 s, and by 4.3% at 110 s in the control condition, and by 5.5% at 110 s in the 30-Hz condition. CONCLUSION: This study showed that WBV exercise with frequencies of 30, 40, and 50 Hz and small amplitudes does not affect muscle oxygenation of VL and GM muscles to a higher degree than a nonvibration condition.

Cardinale M, Ferrari M. & Quaresima V. (2007). Gastrocnemius medialis and vastus lateralis oxygenation during whole-body vibration exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 39(4). 694-700.

Knee extensor fatigability after bedrest for 8 weeks with and without countermeasure.

Mulder ER, Kuebler WM, Gerrits KH, Rittweger J, Felsenberg D, Stegeman DF, de Haan A.

Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. [email protected]

We analyzed the effects of gravitational unloading on muscular fatigability and the effectiveness of resistive vibration exercise to counteract these changes. Changes in knee extensor fatigability as a consequence of 8 weeks of horizontal bedrest with or without daily resistive vibration exercise were evaluated in 17 healthy male volunteers. Bedrest increased fatigability (% decrease in maximal voluntary isometric torque per minute exercise) from -7.2 +/- 0.5 to -10.2 +/- 1.0%/min (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by a decline (of 52.0 +/- 3.7%, P < 0.05) in muscle blood flow. Daily resistive vibration exercise training during bedrest prevented increases in fatigability (from -10.8 +/- 1.8 to -8.4 +/- 1.6%/min, P < 0.05), and mitigated the reduction in blood flow (decline of 26.1 +/- 5.1%, P < 0.05). Daily resistive exercise may thus be suggested as an effective countermeasure during spaceflight and illness-related prolonged bedrest to combat the detrimental changes in muscle endurance that result from gravitational unloading.

Mulder E.R., Kuebler W.M., Gerrits K.H., Rittweger J., Felsenberg D., Stegeman D.F. & de Haan A. (2007). Knee extensor fatigability after bedrest for 8 weeks with and without countermeasure. Muscle & Nerve. 36(6). 798-806.

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